A bridge  collapses because of poor construction. Pupils in an elementary school lose a month or two of classes because their books aren’t ready. A young woman dies after she receives a vaccine for a common influenza.

These are not uncommon headlines in the news.

But they often contain a common underlying thread: corruption and nepotism in government contracts leads the state to buy sub-standard goods and services. Estimates show that about a fourth of the procurement budget is drained through corruption, which is around 2 trillion USD annually (OECD, 2013).

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